Index 2024
99/ 180
Score : 54.1
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator
Index 2023
96/ 180
Score : 57.86
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator

In Albania, press freedom and media independence are threatened by conflicts of interest between the business and political worlds, a flawed legal framework and partisan regulation. Journalists are victims of acts of intimidation by politicians and organised crime.

Media landscape

The most influential Albanian private-sector media are owned by a handful of companies that have links to the political world in highly regulated sectors such as construction. While there are hundreds of online media outlets in the country, only a small number have a sustainable business model with transparent funding. Major media outlets include the public broadcaster RTSHTop Channel, TV Klan, and RTV Ora.

Political context

Journalists face political pressure, especially during elections. Politicians limit editorial independence by politicising media regulators and by appointing those in charge of the public media, such as the ruling party ally who was put in charge of the RTSH in 2023. Critical journalists are often subjected to attacks designed to discredit them by both the government and the opposition, and they have trouble obtaining state-held information, access to which could be even more restricted by a recent centralisation of government communications.

Legal framework

Although Albania’s constitution and international legal commitments guarantee press freedom, protection for the confidentiality of sources is insufficient. It was notably flouted by the seizure of investigative journalist Elton Qyno’s material in 2023. As a result of a prosecutor’s controversial decision, the media were banned from covering the repercussions of a 2022 cyberattack on state institutions.

Economic context

The ownership of much of the Albanian media landscape is concentrated in the hands of just four or five companies. State funding represents a major source of revenue for the media, but its opaque and discriminatory distribution raises suspicions of influence peddling.

Sociocultural context

Journalists investigating crime and corruption are especially targets of threats. Women journalists, who make up the majority of the profession, face online harassment and in some cases gender-based discrimination within news organisations, although there has been progress in this area. Self-censorship is widespread, but media outlets have nonetheless created a platform for ethical self-regulation, the first of its kind in Albania.


Reporters covering demonstrations and police operations are sometimes victims of police violence. But organised crime represents one of the biggest threats to journalists’ safety. Although the police recently took steps to investigate attacks against journalists, the impunity for these crimes, combined with political attempts to discredit journalists, has created a climate likely to encourage further attacks. In March 2023, Top Channel headquarters were the target of an unprecedented attack with automatic weapons that killed one of its security guards. 

Abuses in real time in Albania

Killed since 1st January 2024
0 journalists
0 media workers
Detained as of today
0 journalists
0 media workers