Index 2024
66/ 180
Score : 63.13
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator
Index 2023
40/ 180
Score : 73.36
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator

Heavily concentrated and opaque media ownership, polarisation, the lack of governmental policies guaranteeing media pluralism, and job instability for journalists are the main threats to press freedom in Argentina. This environment provides fertile ground for government and corporate pressure through private and public advertising, and partisan use of national, regional, and municipal state-owned media. The election of Javier Milei, a president openly hostile to the media, poses a disturbing new threat to the right to information in the country. 

Media landscape

The right to information and freedom of expression are guaranteed by liberal-inspired laws, but information pluralism suffers from public policy shortcomings and the concentration of media ownership. The Clarín group, the media industry’s main player, wields a great deal of influence over the media landscape. The daily La Nación, the news site Infobae and the privately owned TV channel Telefe are very popular. In some provinces far from Buenos Aires, freedom of expression is impacted by the close relations between business and political interests, which increases restrictions on press freedom. The leading news agency Télam’s closure in 2024 dealt a heavy blow to the right to information. 

Political context

Freedom of expression is a principle valued by Argentines and supported, out of conviction or convenience, by almost the entire political class. In recent decades, political confrontation and polarisation – driven by both political and business interests – have had a direct impact on the media and have impoverished the quality of reporting and analysis. The promotion of hatred and violence have found an echo in the media of various tendencies. Sensitive issues associated with a range of social, economic and political aspects of the country have been excluded from the public debate and the media’s agenda is now extremely focused on the big cities, especially Buenos Aires. Javier Milei, the far-right candidate elected president in 2023, is encouraging hostility towards journalists and delivering attacks aimed at discrediting the media and journalists critical of his policies – attacks that are widely echoed by his supporters. 

Legal framework

Press freedom is guaranteed by the constitution. Since 1983, when democracy was restored, legislation has freed itself from the authoritarian principles of the previous decades. The crimes of contempt, slander, and insult have been eliminated from the penal code. Compensation for false information or defamation is restricted to the civil sphere, and the confidentiality of sources and professional secrecy are guaranteed. Nonetheless, attempts are still made to silence journalists by more subtle means such as economic pressure. And little or no legislative progress has been made in limiting censorship. President Javier Milei has made it clear that he intends to close or privatise state-owned media and no longer fund community media, which would impoverish the news and information ecosystem. 

Economic context

The Argentine media still suffer from the persistent economic difficulties of the past decade, which have made employment and resources more precarious. The most powerful media belong to a small number of conglomerates linked to the telecommunications and petroleum industries and the public works sector. Almost all regulations designed to combat media ownership concentration and media conflicts of interest were scrapped between 2015 and 2019. The state plays a murky role in the way it awards advertising, tax exemptions, and contracts. Entities that are supposed to defend the public and oversee the telecommunications market are very dependent on the government of the moment. The media sector has been weakened by Argentina’s latest serious economic crisis, which is deepening. 

Sociocultural context

Argentina is a country marked by sharp contrasts, with the huge metropolis of Buenos Aires, which is home to 30% of the population, 20 medium-sized cities, and vast regions with low population density. While the entire country has access to contemporary culture, the conditions in which journalism is produced and disseminated vary greatly. Political polarisation and the rise of an extremist political movement led by Javier Milei have exacerbated intolerance and both virtual and real violence, often with the support of the police. 


Since 2000, no journalist has been imprisoned or murdered, and physical attacks are rare. Attacks or threats against reporters and the media are condemned by both the public and politicians. Journalists can, however, be the targets of intimidation by criminal organisations (drugs, human trafficking and corruption of security forces) and of police violence during large demonstrations. Security Minister Patricia Bullrich has a history of supporting law enforcement suspected of committing abuses against protesters and journalists.