Index 2024
88/ 180
Score : 57.15
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator
Index 2023
107/ 180
Score : 55.2
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator

Press freedom has suffered a systemic crisis since 2021. The scandal of the wiretapping of journalists by the National Intelligence Service (EYP) has yet to be cleared up, as is the case regarding the murder of veteran crime reporter Giorgos Karaivaz in 2021. SLAPP procedures are common and a journalist was arbitrarily convicted of spreading fake news in 2023.

Media landscape

The population’s trust in the media has been one of the lowest in Europe for many years. A few large privately owned groups like Alter Ego Media coexist alongside hundreds of news sites, which contributes to a high fragmentation of the media landscape. Similarly, a few entrepreneurs run the vast majority of media outlets, while being involved in other highly regulated business sectors. Some of them have close ties to the country’s political elite. As a result, the press is very polarised.

Political context

The government spokesperson is responsible for overseeing the public media, which endangers their editorial independence. The broadcasting regulator, the National Council for Radio and Television (NCRTV), accused of being slow and inefficient, has not been significantly overhauled by either the current or the previous government. The National Intelligence Service (EYP), which is overseen by the prime minister, was involved in the surveillance of journalists, many of whom were targeted by the Predator spyware.

Legal framework

Despite constitutional guarantees, press freedom has been challenged at the legislative level. New laws passed by Parliament, meant to provide better protections for citizens against arbitrary surveillance, in response to the Predatorgate wiretapping scandal, fall short of European standards. A new media bill has led to the creation of a controversial ethics committee. Without any hard evidence, a journalist was convicted under the criminal code of spreading false information, while an amendment passed in 2023 increases the risk of journalists being jailed for defamation.

Economic context

The financial crisis of the last decade, combined with declining readership and advertising budgets, has called into question the long-term survival of many media outlets. The impact of the new legislation aimed at increasing transparency of media ownership and funding remains to be seen.

Sociocultural context

The premises of some media outlets are regularly attacked by far-left and far-right activists who see them as ideological enemies. In addition, female journalists frequently face sexism in the workplace.


The police regularly resort to violence and arbitrary bans to obstruct journalistic coverage of demonstrations and the refugee crisis on the Greek islands. Journalists have been the victims of physical attacks during sporting events and in front of their homes. Despite arrests made in April 2023, the murder of veteran crime reporter Giorgos Karaivaz, who was gunned down in broad daylight in front of his Athens home in 2021, has yet to be resolved. The limited scope of a working group on the protection of journalists is preventing it from addressing Greek journalism’s systemic crisis.

Abuses in real time in Greece

Killed since 1st January 2024
0 journalists
0 media workers
Detained as of today
0 journalists
0 media workers