Europe - Central Asia
Index 2023
6/ 180
Score : 87
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator
Index 2022
28/ 180
Score : 77.93
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator

The assassination in July 2021 of crime reporter Peter R. de Vries, who also worked as a legal adviser for victims of crime, shocked not only  a society that values press freedom, but also the authorities who have developed a sophisticated system to protect journalists.

Media landscape

In the Netherlands, the media are traditionally independent and highly trusted by a majority of the population. There is a diverse media landscape with a high level of pluralism and a wide range of national (Volkskrant, Telegraaf…) and regional (Leidsch Dagblad, Gooi en Eemlander…) daily newspapers and magazines. A well-established independent public broadcasting service, NOS, works alongside several big commercial broadcasting companies. Russian media in exile, such as the Moscow Times and TV Dozhd, have found a safe haven in Amsterdam.

Political context

Press freedom is actively protected by the state and the government, albeit more efficiently in continental Netherlands than in their overseas territories. The media are under attack from populist parties on the far right and far left of the political spectrum. A majority of Dutch journalists are members of the Dutch Federation of Journalists (NVJ), an active union that fights for safe working conditions and fair pay.

Legal framework

Although a solid legal framework effectively protects press freedom, the government has not provided the legally required access to official documentation for several years. In most cases, the documentation requested by journalists arrived late or was incorrect or incomplete. There is a risk of breaching the confidentiality of sources due to the powers granted to security services to decrypt communications networks and to tap phones and internet communication systems.

Economic context

The level of pluralism in the Dutch media is high and there are very few limits on the dissemination of information and opinion. However, there is concern about the growing concentration of economic power in the media. Two media companies own the great majority of papers. There is also concern about the decline of regional journalism.

Sociocultural context

The polarisation of public opinion on issues such as immigration, agriculture and climate change has led to an increase in physical and verbal attacks against journalists, especially against TV crews and photographers. This has led some journalists to self-censorship and a reluctance to cover certain subjects. Abuse and trolling on social networks impact news gathering and dissemination. Female reporters and journalists of colour are especially vulnerable to such attacks.


The assassination of crime reporter Peter R. de Vries in July 2021 came as a shock to a society that values and legally protects freedom of the press. The ongoing dangers of organized crime have earned certain reporters police protection. Physical attacks targeting them are usually prosecuted. Reporters threatened offline or, increasingly, online, can call an emergency number to report crimes and receive advice.

Abuses in real time in the Netherlands

Killed since 1st January 2024
0 journalists
0 media workers
Detained as of today
0 journalists
0 media workers